###### Module 3 Electrical Fundamentals

Sub-Module 01 - Electron Theory

Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms, molecules ,ions, compounds; Molecular structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

Sub-Module 02 - Static Electricity and Conduction

Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges; Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion; Units of charge, Coulomb's Law; Conduction of electricity in solids, liquids, gases and a vacuum.

Sub-Module 03 - Electrical Terminology

The following terms, their units and factors affecting them: potential difference, electromotive force, voltage, current, resistance, conductance, charge, conventional current flow, electron flow.

Sub-Module 04- Generation of Electricity

Production of electricity by the following methods: light, heat, friction, pressure, chemical action, magnetism and motion.

Sub-Module 05 - DC Sources of Electricity

Construction and basic chemical action of: primary cells, secondary cells, lead acid cells, nickel 2 2 cadmium cells, other alkaline cells; Cells connected in series and parallel; Internal resistance and its effect on a battery; Construction, materials and operation of thermocouples; Operation of photo-cells.

Sub-Module 06- DC Circuits

Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Voltage and Current Laws; Calculations using the above laws to find resistance, voltage and current; Significance of the internal resistance of a supply.

Sub-Module 07 - Resistance /Resistor

(a) Resistance and affecting factors; Specific resistance; Resistor colour code, values and tolerances, preferred values, wattage ratings; Resistors in series and parallel; Calculation of total resistance using series, parallel and series parallel combinations; Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats; Operation of Wheatstone Bridge;

(b) Positive and negative temperature coefficient conductance; Fixed resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations, methods of construction; Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent resistors; Construction of potentiometers and rheostats; Construction of Wheatstone Bridge.

Sub-Module 08 - Power

Power, work and energy (kinetic and potential); Dissipation of power by a resistor; Power formula; Calculations involving power, work and energy.

Sub-Module 09 - Capacitance/Capacitor

Operation and function of a capacitor;actors affecting capacitance area of plates, distance between plates, number of plates, dielectric and dielectric constant, working voltage, voltage rating; Capacitor types, construction and function; Capacitor colour coding; Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits; Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor, time constants; Testing of capacitors.

Sub-Module 10 -Magnetism

(a) Theory of magnetism; Properties of a magnet; Action of a magnet suspended in the Earth's magnetic field; Magnetisation and demagnetization ; Magnetic shielding; Various types of magnetic material; Electromagnets construction and principles of operation; Hand clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying conductor; (b) Magnetomotive force, field strength, magnetic flux density, permeability, hysteresis loop, retentivity, coercive force reluctance, saturation point, eddy currents; Precautions for care and storage of magnets.

Sub-Module 11-lnductance/inductor

Faraday's Law; Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field; Induction principles; Effects of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: Magnetic field strength, rate of change of flux, number of conductor turns; Mutual induction; The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductance has on induced voltage; Factors affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil, physical size of coil, permeability of coil, position of coils with respect to each other; Lenz's Law and polarity determining rules; Back emf, self induction; Saturation point; Principle uses of inductors.

Sub-Module 12 - DC Motor/Generator

Theory Basic motor and generator theory; Construction and purpose of components in DC generator; Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators; Operation of, and factors affecting output power, torque, speed and direction of rotation of DC motors; Series wound, shunt wound and compound motors; Starter Generator construction.

Sub-Module 13 - AC Theory

Sinusoidal waveform: phase, period, frequency, cycle; Instantaneous, average, root mean square, peak, peak to peak current values and calculations of these values, in relation to voltage, current and power ;Triangular /Square waves; Single/3 phase principles.

Sub-Module 14 - Resistive (R), Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits

Phase relationship of voltage and current in L, C and R circuits, parallel, series and series parallel; 2 2 Power dissipation in L, C and R circuits; Impedance, phase angle, power factor and current calculations ;True power, apparent power and reactive power calculations.

Sub-Module 15 -Transformers

Transformer construction principles and operation; Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them; Transformer action under load and no-load conditions; Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings; Calculation offline and phase voltages and currents, calculation of power in a three phase system; Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio, power, efficiency; Auto transformers.

Sub-Module 16 - Filters

Operation, application and uses of the following filters: low pass, high pass, band pass, band stop.

Sub-Module 17 -AC Generators

Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced; Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators; Single phase, two phase and three phase alternators; Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses; Permanent Magnet Generators.

Sub-Module 18 - AC Motors

Construction, principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase; Methods of speed control and direction of rotation; Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor, inductor, shaded or split pole.

### Module-3 Electrical Fundamentals

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